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The clinical-genomics efforts concentrate on known genes because they are the fast and cost-efficient approach to genome analysis.
FREMONT, CA: The Human Genome Project's technology and resources are beginning to profoundly influence biomedical research and develop a wide range of biological research and clinical medicine. Researchers pursuing genes related to numerous genetic conditions, including myotonic dystrophy, fragile X syndrome, neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, inherited colon cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and familial breast cancer, have benefited from increasingly detailed genome maps.
A new phase of molecular medicine is on the horizon, focusing on the root causes of disease rather than treating symptoms. Quick and more specific diagnostic tests will allow for earlier treatment of a wide range of ailments. Medical researchers can develop new therapeutic treatments based on new drug classes, immunotherapy techniques, avoidance of environmental factors that might trigger disease, and possible gene therapy augmentation or replacement of faulty genes.
Using the genome project's new abilities, DOE launched the Microbial Genome Program to process the genomes of bacteria helpful in energy production, environmental remediation, decreasing toxic waste, and industrial processing.
The Genomic Science Program (GSP) is a follow-up program that develops data and resources from the Human Genome Project, the Microbial Genome Program, and systems biology. GSP will accelerate the understanding of dynamic living systems to find solutions to DOE mission difficulties in energy and the environment.
Irrespective of the dependence on the inhabitants of the microbial world, researchers know significantly less about their number or nature. Less than 0.01 percent of every microbe has been cultivated and characterized, according to estimates. Microbial genome sequencing will help lay the groundwork for knowledge that will profit human health and the environment in the long run. More industrial applications of microbial abilities will boost the economy.
The knowledge gained from the characterization of complete microbial genomes will contribute to developing new energy-related biotechnologies like photosynthetic systems, microbial systems that perform in extreme environments, and organisms that can metabolize widely accessible renewable resources and waste material with great ease.
Advantages are also predicted to involve developing a wide range of new products, processes, and testing methods that will lay the groundwork for a cleaner environment. Nontoxic chemicals and enzymes will be used in biomanufacturing to decrease costs and enhance the efficiency of industrial processes. Microbial enzymes have been utilized to bleach paper pulp, stonewash denim, erase lipstick from glassware, break down the starch in brewing, and coagulate milk protein in cheese production. In medicine, microbial sequences may support researchers in the discovery of new human genes and highlight the pathogens' disease-causing properties.
Pharmaceutical researchers will also benefit from a comprehensive understanding of how pathogenic microbes end up causing disease. The sequencing of these microbes will aid in the discovery of weaknesses and the identification of new drug targets.
A better understanding of the microbial world will also offer insights into the techniques and restrictions of life on Earth. The data generated by this new program has assisted scientists in determining the minimum number of genes required for life and confirming the existence of a third major kingdom of life. New genetic techniques enable researchers to more clearly define the diversity of microorganisms and recognize those crucial to maintaining or rebuilding the function and integrity of large and small ecosystems. This information can also be used to track and predict environmental transformation. Finally, microbial community research provides models for comprehending biological interactions and evolutionary history.
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