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Genome editing techniques have the potential to assist in the treatment of diseases like cystic fibrosis and diabetes, which have a genetic basis.
FREMONT, CA: Genome editing is a technique for altering the DNA of many organisms, including plants, bacteria, and animals. Editing DNA can alter physical characteristics such as eye color and disease risk.
Genome editing tools allow scientists to alter DNA, resulting in changes in physical characteristics such as eye color and illness risk. To achieve this, scientists employ a variety of technologies. These devices work like scissors, cutting DNA at a precise location. The DNA that was sliced can then be removed, added to, or replaced by researchers.
The first genome editing tools were developed in the late 1900s. More recently, a new genome-editing technique known as CRISPR, which was developed in 2009, has made modifying DNA easier than ever before. CRISPR is easier, faster, less expensive, and more precise than previous genome editing technologies. CRISPR is being employed by many scientists that do genome editing.
Gene therapies, or treatments involving genome editing, are being developed by scientists to prevent and treat diseases in people. Genome editing techniques have the potential to assist in the treatment of diseases like cystic fibrosis and diabetes, which have a genetic basis. Gene therapies are divided into two categories: germline therapy and somatic therapy. Germline therapies cause mutations in the DNA of reproductive cells (like sperm and eggs).
Reproductive cell DNA changes are passed down from generation to generation. On the other hand, Somatic therapies target non-reproductive cells, and any changes that occur in these cells solely affect the individual who receives the gene therapy.
Scientists are using genome editing to examine many disorders that impact humans. Animal genomes, such as mice and zebrafish, are edited because animals have many of the same genes as humans. Mice and humans, for example, share 85 percent of their genes! Scientists can see how changes in a single gene or numerous genes impact the health of a mouse and estimate how comparable changes in human genomes would affect human health.
Even though CRISPR is a step forward from previous genome editing methods, it is not without flaws. Genome editing tools, for example, can sometimes cut in the wrong place. Scientists are not sure how these mistakes will affect patients yet. To ensure that gene therapies are safe for patients, researchers must assess their safety and improve genome editing methods.