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Deploying biotechnology in agriculture holds crucial applications in the sector that includes genetic engineering, tissue culture, embryo rescue, somatic hybridisation, vaccine, and molecular diagnostics.
FREMONT, CA: Defined as the utilisation of scientific techniques in improving and altering the value of plants, animals, and microorganisms’ value, biotechnology holds a firm ground in varied fields like medicine, agriculture, and genetic engineering. Agricultural biotechnology can be relatively characterised as a set of scientific techniques to improve plants, microorganisms, and animals, highly based on DNA and its concepts. Accumulating biotechnology techniques in agriculture is often deemed to have a greater induced effect than using agrochemicals, owing to the latter’s contribution to environmental distress and reduced feasibility for farmers.
One significant approach in this biotechnology-induced agricultural technique is genetic engineering, or rDNA technology, where one or more genes are deliberately modified in laboratories. That is, using recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology enables altering the genetic makeup of an organism, thereby facilitating increased efficiency in the process. Similarly, tissue culture is enabled by nurturing fragments of plant or animal tissue in a controlled environment for their critical survival and growth after their isolation.
Likewise, the embryo rescue model enables the nurturing of an immature embryo in a controlled environment while ensuring its potential to survive.
Thus, the measure favours preserving species like heritage seeds and local grains of cultural significance that face extinction threats. Wherein, somatic hybridisation accounts for manipulating the cellular genome via protoplast fusion.
Molecular-gene markers in genetic engineering are typically referred to as specific segments of DNA, generally associated with a particular location within the genome. Alongside this, molecular diagnostics, another set of techniques, is distinctly used in analysing biological markers in the genome and proteome to determine the expression of cells' genes as proteins.
Wherein, vaccines are formulations that are injected into a host body in the stimulation of a desired immune response, thereby preventing varied diseases like polio. Vaccines also played a crucial role in controlling the spread of COVID-19 and are ensured to remain a firsthand and effective remedy for most ailments. Similarly, micropropagation is often defined as the clonal propagation of plants in a closed vessel under aseptic and controlled conditions.
However, the role of biotechnology in agriculture is highly multifaceted. One pivotal benefit of harnessing biotechnology in the agriculture sector is increased crop production via induced disease control and an elevated tolerance to drought and flooding. This, in turn, favours farmers in their efficient tackling of losses, in addition to matching the ever-growing demand for food. Additionally, biotechnology facilitates innovative solutions to surging conditions like pest control, enabling cultivators to transform crops like cotton, corn, and potato for protein synthesis, thus addressing pests' effects effectively.