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Immunotherapy is a relatively new form of precision medicine that assists the immune system in recognizing and combating cancer cells.
FREMONT, CA: Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that enlists the assistance of own immune system in the fight against cancer. This is in contrast to conventional chemotherapy, which employs chemicals that kill cancerous and normal cells.
Each form of cancer is distinct. Immunotherapy is not effective against all types of cancer or in all patients with cancer. However, physicians continue to experiment with new medicines.
Specific forms of immunotherapy have become an integral part of the standard of care for certain types of cancer. Doctors may utilize it in the following ways:
Bladder cancer is one of the cancers that immunotherapy can treat. There are now six FDA-approved treatment options for bladder cancer. They include the following:
Antibodies that are directed. This treatment disturbs cancer cells and signals the immune system to identify and eliminate them.
Immunotherapy against cancer
They aid the body in eradicating or stopping cancer cells and preventing their recurrence.
Modulators of the immune system that enhance the total immunological response. Inhibitors of checkpoints are one example.
Cancer of the brain. Several clinical studies are tested to determine whether immunotherapy can be used in situations when previous treatments have failed. There are two types of targeted antibodies approved to treat brain and nervous system malignancies.
Cancer of the breast. Initially, physicians believed immunotherapy was a poor treatment option for breast cancer. However, recent research indicates that particular women may benefit from it. Among these are women who produce an abnormal amount of a protein receptor called HER2. Numerous antibodies directed against the HER2 pathway are available. The FDA approved the first checkpoint inhibitor to treat breast cancer in 2019.
Cancer of the cervical cavity. Cervical cancer is treated with three cancer vaccines. Additionally, the FDA approved one checkpoint inhibitor and one monoclonal antibody, both forms of targeted therapy.
Cancer in children. Immunotherapy is approved for various forms of childhood cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, and brain cancer. These include the following:
Colon cancer. This malignancy is treated with various targeted treatments, including checkpoint inhibitors. These may be more effective for patients who exhibit specific genetic characteristics.
Cancer of the esophagus. The FDA has approved two targeted treatments and one checkpoint inhibitor for this form of cancer. Researchers are examining the following strategies for launching immunotherapy against esophageal cancer:
Cancer of the head and neck. Immunotherapy may be especially beneficial for persons with head and neck malignancies caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Additionally, it may help avoid the severe side effects associated with other forms of treatment. The FDA has approved one targeted antibody and two checkpoint inhibitors for these tumors.
Cancer of the kidneys. This cancer is receiving a great deal of attention from researchers. Targeted treatments and cytokines were initially utilized to treat kidney cancer. Cytokines are proteins produced by white blood cells that stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells. The FDA has also approved a monoclonal antibody and checkpoint inhibitors.