Thank you for Subscribing to Life Science Review Weekly Brief
CRISPR-Cas9 is a genome-editing system that evolved naturally in bacteria. CRISPR arrays are DNA fragments generated by bacteria that catch snippets of DNA from invading viruses.
FREMONT, CA: Genome editing (also known as genome editing) applies to a collection of technologies that allow scientists to alter an organism's DNA. These technologies provide for the addition, removal, or modification of genetic material at distinct points in the genome. There have been several approaches to genome editing developed. CRISPR-Cas9, which stands for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9, is a new one. Since it is quicker, easier, more accurate, and effective than other genome editing approaches, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has sparked a lot of interest in the scientific community.
CRISPR-Cas9 is a genome-editing system that evolved naturally in bacteria. CRISPR arrays are DNA fragments generated by bacteria that catch snippets of DNA from invading viruses. Bacteria can ‘remember’ viruses thanks to CRISPR arrays (or closely related ones). If the viruses resurface, the bacteria create RNA segments from the CRISPR arrays to strike the viruses' DNA. The bacteria then use Cas9 or a related enzyme to break the virus's DNA apart, rendering it inoperable.
In the lab, the CRISPR-Cas9 method operates similarly. Researchers form a small piece of RNA with a short 'guide' sequence that connects (binds) to a particular target sequence of DNA in a genome.
See Also: Towards a New World Order
The RNA binds to the Cas9 enzyme as well. The modified RNA recognizes the DNA sequence, much like bacteria, and the Cas9 enzyme cuts the DNA at the desired spot. While Cas9 is the most commonly used enzyme, other enzymes (such as Cpf1) can also be used. Researchers use the cell's own DNA repair tools to add or remove pieces of genetic material or make adjustments to the DNA by replacing an existing section with a customized DNA sequence after the DNA has been sliced.
In the prevention and therapy of human diseases, genome editing is of considerable importance. The majority of genome editing research is currently managed using cells and animal models to understand diseases better. Scientists are also analyzing to figure out whether this method is safe and successful in humans. It is being studied for many diseases, including single-gene conditions, including cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, and sickle cell anemia. It also has the potential to treat and prevent more complex diseases like cancer, heart disease, mental illness, and HIV infection.