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A new generation of platforms consists of cell models that accurately mimic the cells’ microenvironment, along with flexibly prototyped cell handling structures that represent the human environment.
FREMONT, CA: Animal models or two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures have traditionally been used in biomedical research. Even though they are among the most widely used systematic models, animal models only give a partial grasp of the biology of several tissues unique to humans. This is due to several factors, including ethical concerns, low throughput research, and fundamental distinctions between people and animals. Given the expense of providing care, food, and shelter for the animals, animal experimentation is not economically viable. Furthermore, it is still conceivable that medication therapies that appear promising in animal models but may be dangerous when tested on humans would ultimately fail. However, 2D-cell cultures only interact with their milieu in two dimensions, which in most circumstances cannot accurately replicate physiological conditions, although they have a wide range of uses. The polarity of the cells, mechanical cues, pharmacological signals, and cell-cell interactions in 2D-cell constructions were all altered, according to numerous studies. Three-dimensional (3D) cell models have recently started to take the place of traditional (2D) models, better capturing the intricate cellular microenvironment. In vivo cell structure and function, where features such the cell type, cell morphology, cell propagation, as well as differentiation, are more accurately represented, 3D models, have demonstrated improvement and relevance.
Additionally, it should be noted that the failure of preclinical 2D cell culture to forecast therapeutic safety and efficacy in people results in billions of dollars being lost annually,
which also hampers the development of medicines for patients in need. The literature is replete with instances of how cells maintained in 2D vs. 3D formats significantly differ in their sensitivity to drugs. The advantages of utilising 3D-based models for preclinical drug screens are illustrated by the fact that cell responses to medicines in 3D culture are superior to those in 2D in terms of simulating the functioning of in vivo tissue. 3D cell structure models may be advantageous for drug screening applications. In a 3D environment, cells grow naturally, which has an impact on how they communicate with one another and their microenvironment. As a result, when testing drug candidates utilising cell-based assays, the cell culture techniques used should mimic the in vivo environment as closely as possible. The most natural tissue-imitating technique for drug discovery is 3D-cell culture.
The development of innovative platforms to study disease processes, progressions, and testing of potential therapeutics is made possible by OOCs systems' capacity to imitate cell behaviours that are indicative of organ-level physiology. However, rapid fabrication of fluidic perfusion systems, the creation of cell models with adequate physiological microenvironment relevance, and the integration of these two into a single cohesive platform are some of the critical considerations needed for the design, production, and successful applicability of OOC devices. Examining several medicines or their concentrations on the same model population is crucial for in vitro drug screening testing systems, for instance. The production and administration of various therapeutic dosages (or combinations of doses) within a chip flow circulation are made possible by the introduction of fluidic handling devices like micromixers.